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Arab-Israel Conflick


By The Houw Liong - Posted on 17 February 2020

"Arab-Israeli War" redirects here. For other uses, see Arab–Israeli War (disambiguation).
Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab-Israeli Conflict Key Players.svg
The key parties in the Arab–Israeli conflict
Date c. 15 May 1948–ongoing
(71 years, 9 months and 1 day)
Main phase: 1948–1982[2]
Location
Middle East
Result
Low-level ongoing:

Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty 1979
Israeli-Lebanese peace treaty attempt 1983
Oslo Accords 1993
Israel–Jordan Peace Treaty 1994
UNSC 1701 (Israel-Lebanon ceasefire treaty) 2006
Approachment of Israel and Gulf States in light of mutual stance against Iran 2010s
Territorial
changes
Establishment of Israel and All-Palestine Protectorate (1948); Jordanian annexation of the West Bank;
Dissolution of All-Palestine Government and Egyptian occupation of the Gaza Strip
Israeli occupation (1967–82) of the Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights
Egyptian–Israeli peace and formation of the Israeli Civil Administration (1982)
Oslo Accords and formation of the Palestinian National Authority in areas A, B of the West Bank and Gaza in 1994.
Israel–Jordan peace treaty (1994)
Belligerents
Israel

Mahal volunteers (1947–49)
United Kingdom (1956 only)
France France (1956 only)

Lebanese Front (1978–84)
Kataeb Party (1978–82)
Lebanese Forces (militia) (1978–84)
Free Lebanon State (1978–84)
South Lebanon Army (1984–2000)
Supported by:
United States (1973–)
Arab League

Egypt (1948–78)
Jordan (1948–94)
Lebanon (1948)
Iraq (1948–2003)
Syria (1948–1982)
All-Palestine (1948–59)
AHW (1947–49)
Fedayeen (1949–64)
PLO (1964–1993)
Palestinian Authority (2000–05)
Supported by:
Soviet Union (1967–91)[1]
Gaza Strip (2006–) Supported by:
Iran (2006–12)
Commanders and leaders
Israel David Ben-Gurion (1948–63)
Israel Yigael Yadin (1948–52)
Israel Yaakov Dori (1948–49)
Israel Yitzhak Rabin (1948–95)
Israel Ariel Sharon (1948–2005)
Israel Ehud Barak (1948–2013)
Moshe Dayan (1948–79)
Saad Haddad (1978–84)
Antoine Lahad (1984–2000)
Logo of Kataeb Party.svg Bachir Gemayel (1978–82)
Jordan John Bagot Glubb (1948–86)
Jordan Habis al-Majali (1948–2001)
Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg Abd al-Q. al-Husayni †
Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg Hasan Salama †
Arab Liberation Army (bw).svg Fawzi Al-Qawuqji (1948–77)
Egypt Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi (1948–1979)
Flag of Hejaz 1917.svg Haj Amin Al-Husseini (1948–74)
Egypt King Farouk I (1948–65)
Egypt Ahmad Ali al-Mwawi (1948–79)
Egypt Muhammad Naguib (1948–84)
Egypt Saad El Shazly (1948–2011)
Casualties and losses
?22,570 military deaths[3]

?1,723 civilian deaths[4] ?1,050 SLA militiamen deaths[5] 91,105 total Arab deaths[6]
Both sides:
74,000 military deaths
18,000 civilian deaths
(1945–1995)[7]
Part of a series on the
Arab–Israeli conflict
History
Views on the conflict
Media coverage
International law
vte
The ongoing Arab–Israeli conflict refers to the political tension, military conflicts and disputes between Arab countries and Israel, which climaxed during the 20th century. The roots of the Arab–Israeli conflict have been attributed to the support by Arab League member countries for the Palestinians, a fellow-League member, in the ongoing Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which in turn has been attributed to the simultaneous rise of Zionism and Arab nationalism towards the end of the 19th century, though the two national movements had not clashed until the 1920s. In 2002, the Arab League offered recognition of Israel by Arab countries as part of the resolution of the Palestine-Israel conflict in the Arab Peace Initiative.[8] The initiative, which has been reconfirmed since, calls for normalizing relations between the Arab region and Israel, in exchange for a full withdrawal by Israel from the occupied territories (including East Jerusalem) and a "just settlement" of the Palestinian refugee problem based on UN Resolution 194.

Part of the Palestine-Israel conflict arose from the conflicting claims by these movements to the land that formed the British Mandatory Palestine, which was regarded by the Jewish people as their ancestral homeland, while at the same time it was regarded by the Pan-Arab movement as historically and currently belonging to the Arab Palestinians,[9] and in the Pan-Islamic context, as Muslim lands.

There was sectarian conflict within the British Mandate territory between Palestinian Jews and Arabs commencing in the 1920s, escalating into a full-scale Palestinian civil war in 1947. Taking the side of the Palestinian Arabs, especially following the Israeli Declaration of Independence, the neighbouring Arab countries invaded in May 1948 the by-then former Mandate territory, commencing the First Arab–Israeli War. Large-scale hostilities mostly ended with ceasefire agreements after the 1973 Yom Kippur War. Peace agreements were signed between Israel and Egypt in 1979, resulting in Israeli withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula and the abolition of the military governance system in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, in favor of Israeli Civil Administration and consequent unilateral annexation of the Golan Heights and East Jerusalem.

The nature of the conflict has shifted over the years from the large-scale, regional Arab–Israeli conflict to a more local Israeli–Palestinian conflict, which peaked during the 1982 Lebanon War. With the decline of the First Palestinian Intifada, the interim Oslo Accords led to the creation of the Palestinian National Authority in 1994, within the context of the Israeli–Palestinian peace process. The same year Israel and Jordan reached a peace accord. A cease-fire has been largely maintained between Israel and Baathist Syria, as well as with Lebanon. Despite the peace agreements with Egypt and Jordan, interim peace accords with the Palestinian Authority and the generally existing cease-fire, until mid-2010s the Arab League and Israel had remained at odds with each other over many issues.